Political debate disrupted by cyber-attacks and arrests
These incidents have obstructed open discussion of Russia's political future and do not bode well for the presidential election due to take place in March.
Wave of cyber-attacks
Websites critical of the government were paralyzed before and during the elections by a series of Distributed Denial of Service attacks  aimed as silencing them.
LiveJournal, a blog platform that hosts many anti-government blogs, was rendered inaccessible for three days beginning on 1 December. It suffered a DDoS attack on 28 November as well.
The targets of DDoS attacks also included:
* The site of radio Echo of Moscow, http://echo.msk.ru/
* The site of the independent daily Kommersant, http://kommersant.ru/?stamp=634588096187842186
* The site of the election-monitoring NGO Golos http://www.golos.org/
* The general news site Gazeta.ru http://www.gazeta.ru/
* KartaNarusheniy.ru http://kartanarusheniy.ru/ , an interactive map created by Golos for reporting cases of electoral fraud
* The site of Lenizdat, which covers political news in Saint Petersburg, http://lenizdat.ru/
* Three opposition sites - Ridus.org http://www.ridus.ru/ , Slon.ru http://slon.ru/ and NewTimes.ru http://newtimes.ru/ (the two latest relayed the Golos map after Gazeta.ru decided to stop relaying it (see earlier release below)
* The site of Dosh, an independent magazine that covers the Russian Caucasus, doshdu.ru http://www.doshdu.ru/
* The site of Zaks, which covers political news in the northwest, zaks.ru http://zaks.ru/
Some of the attacks on these sites began a few days before the elections, paving the way for the massive attacks of 3 and 4 December. Most of these sites became accessible again as voting stations were about to close yesterday in central Russia, where the largest number of voters live.
In anticipation of this sort of problem, some news media and opposition groups had migrated their site content to online social networks and had told their readers to follow them on Twitter and Facebook if their sites went down.
For more information about these cyber-attacks, read this article by Alexey Sidorenko in English for Global Voices:
Election coverage obstructed
Several journalists were barred from voting stations. According to Aleksandr Gorshkov, the editor of the independent news website Fontanka.ru: "In most cases, the reasons given for barring journalists was the fact that they had cameras and, via their photos, could publicize the personal data of voters."
Although illegal, this was the reason that was given to a Fontanka.ru ( http://www.fontanka.ru/ ) correspondent for preventing him from entering a voting station in the far-north town of Primorye. A reporter for the news agency Rosbalt was evicted from a polling station for photographing a ballot box. Vitaly Kamyshev, the correspondent of Radio Svoboda (the Russian-language service of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty), was denied access to the Central Election Commission and was stripped of his accreditation. The correspondents of the BBC and American Press Agency were arrested in a Moscow voting station and were held for an hour.
Arrests of critical journalists and bloggers
A number of opposition journalists and bloggers were briefly arrested during the last few days before the election.
The editor of the independent news website Besttoday.ru ( http://besttoday.ru/ ), Alexey Sochnev, was arrested on 2 December by police who, without showing any warrant, forced their way into his Moscow apartment, breaking the door. He was subsequently charged under article 282 of the criminal code with helping to run an extremist organization. Sochnev was one of several members of the campaign committee of Eduard Limonov (the head of the banned National Bolshevik Party) who were arrested. But Besttoday.ru managing editor Marina Litvinovich said the police also went to the home of the website's developer in order to search it.
The well-known blogger Maria Plieva was arrested while participating in a banned demonstration in Vladikavkaz, the capital of North Ossetia, on 3 December. She was released that evening and appeared in court that next day. A charge of hooliganism was finally dropped. In Ulyanovsk, the blogger Oleg Sofiyn received an anonymous phone call in which he was told that he would end up with a "broken skull" if he continued to criticize the region's deputy governor, Svetlana Openysheva.
The head of the NGO Golos, Lilia Shibanova, was arrested on the night of 2 December on arriving at Moscow's Sheremetyevo airport and was held for 12 hours. Her computer was confiscated after being closely examined on the grounds that it could contain "material dangerous for national security."
Earlier in the day, Golos was fined 30,000 rubles (720 euros) for allegedly publishing poll results during the five days prior to the elections. The same day, Golos was the subject of a one-sided report by NTV (a station owned by the state oil giant Gazprom) accusing it of being a western intelligence outpost.
Most of the traditional media, including TV stations, did not report these incidents, but provided generous coverage of Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's party, United Russia, which won the elections.
 A DDoS attack is one in which many computer systems simultaneously flood a single website with access requests, causing it to block and shut down, thereby denying the service to legitimate users